The Nazis establish control in Warsaw

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Anti-Jewish attacks

Between 22 and 29 March 1940, encouraged by the Germans, local Poles carried out a series of anti-Jewish attacks against the city’s Jews.

Shop windows were broken, apartments and shops were looted and those wearing Star of David armbands were beaten.

That same month, notices were posted banning Jews entry to cafes and restaurants across the city

Immediately Poland was conquered, German troops began subjecting the Jews of Warsaw to brutal attacks.

Within a week the invaders ordered that a Judenrat be established in Warsaw, under the leadership of a Jewish engineer, Adam Czerniakow. The Judenrat were charged with implementing and administering German orders. In October 1939, Warsaw was incorporated into the General Government, with Ludwig Fischer as its district governor.

Very soon, the Nazi regime introduced a range of anti-Jewish measures. On 23 November 1939, Warsaw’s Jews, over the age of 12 years, were ordered to wear a white armband with a blue Star of David.

Jewish schools were closed and almost all Jewish organisations were dissolved. The only Jewish organisations allowed were those giving aid to the Jewish inhabitants of Warsaw. One such group, the Jewish Mutual Aid Society, ran facilities such as soup kitchens, youth clubs and kindergartens.