- What was the Holocaust?
- Memories of pre-war life
- The Nazi rise to power
- The Nazification of Germany
- The Nazi impact on Europe
- The Nazi camp system
- The Final Solution
- How did the world respond?
- Survival and legacy
Read through the text on this page.
Draw a table with four columns.
Read through your table and evaluate the British responses to the Nazis.
Did Britain respond appropriately?
How might the British response have affected Germany’s future actions?
Terrified of war
The brutality, horror and slaughter of World War One meant that governments were terrified of another war. Consequently, the British response to Nazism was mixed. Even though the British government and the public were well informed about the persecution of Jews and political enemies, there was very little protest. People were terrified of another war.
The 1930s were a period of economic recession and unemployment. Resources were scarce and consequently most politicians did not wish to spend precious money on armaments. This meant that when war finally came Britain was militarily unprepared.
Communism was considered by many as a greater threat than Nazism. Many in Britain admired Hitler’s strong stand against the Soviet Union.
On 13 March 1938 German troops marched into Austria. Great Britain did nothing. On 15 September 1938 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler and agreed to the annexation of the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia. Three days later, Prime Minister Edouard Daladier of France did the same. There were no Czechoslovak representatives in attendance at these meetings. This weakness spurred Hitler on to occupy the whole of Czechoslovakia on 19 March 1939, with little official reaction from Great Britain.
The Evian Conference of July 1938 had shown the Nazis that the democracies, including Britain, would not interfere in Germany’s internal policies towards the Jews. The Nazis introduced antisemitic policies wherever they conquered and extended their reign of terror against the Jews.
Hitler’s conquests led some British government ministers to realise that appeasing the Nazis would not work, as Hitler would never be satisfied and would always want more.
On 23 August 1939, the western world was shocked by a pact between the two traditional enemies, Germany and the Soviet Union. A secret deal was concluded: the Germans would invade Poland from the West, the Soviets from the East. Then, on 1 September 1939 the German army marched into Poland. This time Britain stood firm with her ally Poland and declared war on Germany.
Having conquered Poland in six weeks, Hitler turned westwards and took much of Europe. Certain members of the British government still hoped for peace with Hitler. It was not until Winston Churchill became Prime Minister, in May 1940, that the government became determined to defeat the Nazis.